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Georgian Culture
Georgian Music
Georgia is an ancient and highly developed musical culture country, Georgian people talent of music is commonly known. The best evidence of its beauty and unique folk music is Georgian polyphony.

Since the ancient time in Georgian people's lives the music takes very important place. It was accompanied the labor processes, public holidays, military invasions, hunting, dancing, paying games, mourning.
It is interesting fact that in the principality in 1938 y. during the excavation in one of the ancient grave (XV-XIII c.c. BC) along many things was founded an ancient musical instrument "Salamuri", which was made from a small bone. The religious music had taken the main role in developing the Georgian national professional music.

During the centuries Georgian people has created a rich musical culture, which from the ancient time was divided into two main branch – national or "Word" and religious music or chanting. So when we say "Georgia professional music" we have to imagine both its branches. With religious music also was revived national music. At the gates of King Erekle II we can see famous poets, singers and players – Besik, Saiatnova, Machabeli and others.

Besarion Gabashvili – Besik (1750-1791 y.y.) is known as poet but he was no less famous as a singer and the master of playing musical instruments such as Sazis and Tari.

Saiatnova - (1712-1795 y.y.) is trilingual poet; He created poems and songs on Armenian, Georgian and Azerbaijan languages. He is the representative of ashugs type of poetry.

At the beginning of XIX century, there was founded the new direction of Georgian Literature - Romanticism. Romantics diligently treated with folk art. The romantics started developing not only lyrical songs but they started to create text of the songs and sound.

It is widely known the salons of the famous poets and public figures such as – Mamia Gurieli, Grigol Orbeliani, Mariam Orbeliani, Manana Orbeliani, Nikoloz Baratashvili, Alexaner Chavchavadze, David Dadiani and others. They were performed not only the literature evenings but with accompaniment of music they arranged the theater-drama and musical – literature events. At the beginning of XIX century, besides the orchestras, in Georgian extended the Solo instruments, such as: clarinet, flute, violin, guitar, balalaika, cello and piano.

In 1860 year in Tbilisi was founded "The Committee of restoration of Georgian Chant", whose aim was to record and publish Church Hymns, also their promotion though the choir.

In restoration of Georgian Chant the main part takes R. Dzamsashvili, M.Machavariani and S.Mrevlishvili.
In the second half of XIX century, in the life of Georgian music one of the most important figures is Xarlampi Savaneli Ivan (1842-1890) – the first professional singer, teacher and team leader. In 1874 year in Tbilisi was founded a music school, which has played an important role in the musical life of Georgia and Caucasus, in the foundation of the musical school Savaneli was supported by K.Alixanovi and A.Mizandari.
Musical school founded by Kh. Savaneli in 1886 year became as musical collage and in 1917 year – as musical conservatory. In the second half of XIX century in the life of Georgian music, the main conspicuous place had taken the Georgian ethnographic team of Lado Aghniashvili.
Lado Demeter Aghniashvili (1860-1904) is a comprehensive public figure, but his greatest role is the formation of "Georgian Chorus". The team of L. Aghniashvili became the breeding ground of education of national musical staff.

In the second half of XIX century appear - pianists, singers, instrumentalists, conductors, from them the most distinguished are: Singers – Abelishvili (Tenor), Meliton Balanchivadze (Baritone), A. Beridze (Tenor), Vasil Gegidze (Tenor), Xarlampi Savaneli (Baritone), Filimon Qoridze (Ban), Chikhovani (Tenore), Birshert – Dodashvili (Tenore), Burjanadze (Baritone), D. Gedevanishvili (Tenor), Klara Guramishvili (Coloratura Soprano), Tamar Rcheulishvili (Lyric Soprano), Mariam Dzneladze (Dramatic Soprano), Kazimar Ckhomelidze (Baritone) and others. Pianists – Alioz and Feliks Mizandars, M. Undilova – Sarajishvili, Nino Kiphiani, Nino Meskhishvili, Barbare Amirejibi, E. Ximshiashvili and others. Violinists – Andria Kharashvili, V. Mansvetashvili, I. Andronikashvili, A. Jambakur – Orbeliani. The cello player – Ivane Sarajishvili. Conductor – Ivane Faliashvili and others.
Meliton Balanchivadze (1862-1937 y. y.) – Famous Georgian composer and musician, is one of the founder of a new Georgian music. At the end of XIX century he began to create first Georgian famous opera "Tamar the Wily", which he based on a subjective and drama point of A.Tsereteli dramatic poem.

Before he had created first Georgian romance arts such as – "When I look to you", "Love you forever", "Iavnana" ("Nana Child"). These works prepared the ground for the further development of Georgian art. He gave rise to two major genres of Georgian music - romance and Opera.
Dimitri Arakhishvili – One of the founders of Georgian professional music. In the history of Georgian musical culture D. Arakhishvili is known as the founder of Georgian classical romances, the author of the first Georgian opera "The Legend of Shota Rustaveli", a pioneer in the genre of symphonic "Hymn Ormuzds".

Zakaria Paliashvili (1871-1933 y. y.) – He is the central figure of the first generation of composers. His role in the Georgian musical history was defined even in his life. The author of "Abesalom and Eteri" was called "Georgian Glinka".

Niko Sulkhanishvili (1871-1919 y. y.) – He was the representative of the older generation of composers, was a self-taught composer, he has brought brave soul in the Georgian professional music. N. Sulkhanishvili with Z. Faliashvili establishing in Georgian music epic initials. N. Sulkhanishvili has created and introduced to wide public his best teams – "Mestviruli", "Homeland of Xevsuri", "Gutnuri". After one year he has created his last masterpiece – team "God, God".

Viktor Dolidze (1890-1933 y. y.) – To the name of famous Georgian composer Victor Dolidze is connected one of the most important pages from the Georgian music history. Central place in his works belong to the opera music. V. Dolidze belongs four main operas– "Keto and Kote" (1919 y.), "Cisana" (1923 y.), "Leila" (1922 y.), "Zamira", more than 20 romances, Symphonic Fantasy – "Iveriada", "Azerbaijan", Piano Concert, Orchestra dances and others. He is the first composer who brought new elements such as humor, Comic and Satirical in Georgian music and and make a new page in the history of its development.

The life of this musician ended during the increasing his forces of art, V.Dolidze died in 1933 on 20th of May and is buried in Didube Pantheon. Works of the composers of the older generation created the whole epoch in Georgian musical life. Established almost every major genre of vocal music, created the classical works of this genre of music, which contributes to the further development of Georgian music
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