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Car rental in Tbilisi


Regions of Georgia
Finding of the first European in Dmanisi gives evidence that Georgia was located on a crossroads of migration routes and a man from Africa got to Europe exactly via Georgia. After this discovery it is without any doubt that Georgia is a motherland of the first European.

Short discription of Dmanisi District:
Location - 100 kilometers from the city in the south-west part. Area - 1190 km2. Population - 29868. Religion - Orthodox 36,7%, Muslim - 62,7%, other - 0. 6%. Time zone: GMT 3.00h. Tel code - 8 260, electrical force - 220 volts. Bordering country and districts: Armenia, Tetritskaro District, Tsalka District and Ninotsmonda District. Climate - temperate. The highest mountain - Trealeti. Number of villages - 57, rivers - Khrami, Mashavera, Pinezauri, lakes - Pantiani, Iakulbo and Gomareti five lakes. reservoirs. Minerals - basalt, granite, tuff, lime stone, clay, peat, gold, silver and etc.

Motherland of the first Europeans
Nowadays Dmanisi attracts attention from the whole world. A great number of diplomats, scientists, students, tourists from different countries come here to see it. Why is it so interesting? Dmanisi as well whole Kvemo Kartli region is rich with its history. Many archeological and architectural monuments, dated back to Bronze Era, Antique Era and Middle Ages, are discovered in this district. The most important is Dmanisi Ancient Settlement, where after archeological investigation the whole history of our country and all periods of pre-history were discovered. The layers of Late-Bronze, Early-Iron, Antique eras and Middle centuries were determined and a lot of archeological materials were found. On the promontory formed by the confluence of the Mashavera and Phinezauri Rivers was situated one of the most powerful town. It was crossed by the main trade roads from East, Asia and West Europe.

Dmanisi Ancient Settlement is very unique. In the center of the settlement deep in the layers under the buildings dated back to centuries a great number of (presently extinguished) animals (rhinoceros, elephant, giraffe, gigantic ostrich, tiger and etc.) and Human bones (5 craniums, 4 mandibles and about 60 other parts) were discovered. According to the sciences' definition Dmanisi Homo Erectus belong to Homo Erasers and are 1,7-1,8 year-old. The first homos outside Africa was discovered in Dmanisi. And it is already formulated the idea that Dmanisi is the motherland of the first Europeans.

The maze of Birtvisi Canyon is located about 60 km, South-West of Tbilisi, on the left bank of the river Algeti. An amazing natural shelter was discovered by local Lord back in 8th or 9th century, where he ordered to build an isolated hidden city which later became one of the most protected fortress-cities in Eastern Georgian Kingdom. But in 1403, on his eights attempt, it was conquered by Tamerlane.

On this enjoyable trek, you will feel the incredibility of nature, where in the labyrinth of the canyons and miraculous forest lay the great secrets of an ancient civilization.

David Lordkipanidze, who won a Rolex Award in 2004 for his plans to expand exploration of the earliest known settlement outside Africa, has made more discoveries at the archaeological site underneath the medieval village of Dmanisi, in southeast Georgia.

The latest discoveries – the 1.77-million-year-old skeletons of three adults and a teenager – have legs and feet adapted for long-distance walking and running, similar to those of modern humans, but have hands and arms similar to those of our tree-dwelling ancestors. The ancient Dmanisi inhabitants, who have some human features and some ape-like features, share characteristics with both Homo erectus, originally thought to be the first Homo species to migrate from Africa to Europe, and Homo habilis, the oldest species with human attributes found in Africa.

Dr Lordkipanidze and his team of researchers reckon that the Dmanisi individuals were 1.45- to 1.66-metre-tall meat-eaters who probably slept in trees at night for safety.

The latest findings, which also raise questions about the evolution of Homo sapiens and about migration out of Africa, were revealed in a major article in Nature magazine in September 2007, written by Lordkipanidze and his team of European and American researchers.

"Dmanisi is not only the oldest site outside Africa, but also the most prolific – a treasure trove of prehistoric archaeology", says Lordkipanidze, who is director of the Georgian National Museum in Tbilisi.

Only 5 per cent of the 13,000-square-metre site at Dmanisi has been excavated and, for much of the time since the archaeological work began in earnest in 1991, it was protected only by a plastic tarpaulin roof. Now, partly with the funding from his Rolex Award, Lordkipanidze and his colleagues have had a dome built over the site to protect it from the weather and from looting.

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